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Biophys J. 2012 Jan 18;102(2):305-14. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2011.12.012.

AMP-activated protein kinase β-subunit requires internal motion for optimal carbohydrate binding.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

Abstract

AMP-activated protein kinase interacts with oligosaccharides and glycogen through the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) containing the β-subunit, for which there are two isoforms (β(1) and β(2)). Muscle-specific β(2)-CBM, either as an isolated domain or in the intact enzyme, binds carbohydrates more tightly than the ubiquitous β(1)-CBM. Although residues that contact carbohydrate are strictly conserved, an additional threonine in a loop of β(2)-CBM is concurrent with an increase in flexibility in β(2)-CBM, which may account for the affinity differences between the two isoforms. In contrast to β(1)-CBM, unbound β(2)-CBM showed microsecond-to-millisecond motion at the base of a β-hairpin that contains residues that make critical contacts with carbohydrate. Upon binding to carbohydrate, similar microsecond-to-millisecond motion was observed in this β-hairpin and the loop that contains the threonine insertion. Deletion of the threonine from β(2)-CBM resulted in reduced carbohydrate affinity. Although motion was retained in the unbound state, a significant loss of motion was observed in the bound state of the β(2)-CBM mutant. Insertion of a threonine into the background of β(1)-CBM resulted in increased ligand affinity and flexibility in these loops when bound to carbohydrate. However, these mutations indicate that the additional threonine is not solely responsible for the differences in carbohydrate affinity and protein dynamics. Nevertheless, these results suggest that altered protein dynamics may contribute to differences in the ligand affinity of the two naturally occurring CBM isoforms.

Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
22339867
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3265976
Free PMC Article
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