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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun;66(6):694-700. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.9. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort.

Author information

  • 1Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. lena.nilsson@nutrires.umu.se

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:

Long-term effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets are unclear. We examined a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to mortality.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

This is a population-based cohort study on adults in the northern Swedish county of Västerbotten. In 37,639 men (1460 deaths) and 39,680 women (923 deaths) from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program, deciles of energy-adjusted carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake were added to create an LCHP score (2-20 points). Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox regression.

RESULTS:

Median intakes of carbohydrates, protein and fat in subjects with LCHP scores 2-20 ranged from 61.0% to 38.6%, 11.3% to 19.2% and 26.6% to 41.5% of total energy intake, respectively. High LCHP score (14-20 points) did not predict all-cause mortality compared with low LCHP score (2-8 points), after accounting for saturated fat intake and established risk factors (men: HR for high vs low 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.20), P for continuous = 0.721; women: HR for high vs low 1.10 (95% CI 0.91-1.32), P for continuous = 0.229). For cancer and cardiovascular disease, no clear associations were found. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, though only statistically significant in women (multivariate HR per decile increase 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.99), P = 0.010).

CONCLUSION:

Our results do not support a clear, general association between LCHP score and mortality. Studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient consumption may be necessary to detect such an association.

PMID:
22333874
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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