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Ecohealth. 2011 Dec;8(4):501-6. doi: 10.1007/s10393-012-0743-0. Epub 2012 Feb 11.

Towards a better understanding of the use of probiotics for preventing chytridiomycosis in Panamanian golden frogs.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.


Populations of native Panamanian golden frogs (Atelopus zeteki) have collapsed due to a recent chytridiomycosis epidemic. Reintroduction efforts from captive assurance colonies are unlikely to be successful without the development of methods to control chytridiomycosis in the wild. In an effort to develop a protective treatment regimen, we treated golden frogs with Janthinobacterium lividum, a skin bacterium that has been used to experimentally prevent chytridiomycosis in North American amphibians. Although J. lividum appeared to colonize A. zeteki skin temporarily, it did not prevent or delay mortality in A. zeteki exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causative agent of chytridiomycosis. After introduction of J. lividum, average bacterial cell counts reached a peak of 1.7 × 10(6) cells per frog ~2 weeks after treatment but declined steadily after that. When J. lividum numbers declined to ~2.8 × 10(5) cells per frog, B. dendrobatidis infection intensity increased to greater than 13,000 zoospore equivalents per frog. At this point, frogs began to die of chytridiomycosis. Future research will concentrate on isolating and testing antifungal bacterial species from Panama that may be more compatible with Atelopus skin.

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