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J Korean Med Sci. 2012 Feb;27(2):190-3. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2012.27.2.190. Epub 2012 Jan 27.

Relationship between Helicobacter pylori virulence genes and clinical outcomes in Saudi patients.

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  • 1College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the cytotoxin-associated gene product (cagA) and the vacuolating toxin (vacA). Since considerable geographic diversity in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors has been reported, the aim of this work was to determine if there is a significant correlation between different H. pylori virulence genes (cagA and vacA) in 68 patients, from Saudi Arabia, and gastric clinical outcomes. H. pylor was recognized in cultures of gastric biopsies. vacA and cagA genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cagA gene was obtained with 42 isolates (61.8%). The vacA s- and m- region genotypes were determined in all strains studied. Three genotypes were found: s1/m1 (28%), s1/m2 (40%) and s2/m2 (26%). The s2/m1 genotype was not found in this study. The relation of the presence of cagA and the development of cases to gastritis and ulcer was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The study showed a significant correlation between the vacAs1/m2 genotype and gastritis cases, and a significant correlation between vacAs1/m1 genotype and peptic ulcer cases. The results of this study might be used for the identification of high-risk patients who are infected by vacAs1/m1 genotype of H. pylori strains. In conclusion, H. pylori strains of vacA type s1 and the combination of s1/m1 were associated with peptic ulceration and the presence of cagA gene.


Gastritis; Helicobacter pylori; Peptic Ulcer; cagA; vacA

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