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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Sep;13(9):739-44. doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jes028. Epub 2012 Feb 8.

Transthoracic echocardiographic guidance of minimally invasive perventricular device closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect without cardiopulmonary bypass: initial experience.

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  • 1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, PR China.



Our purpose was to investigate the feasibility of transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) guidance for minimally invasive periventricular device closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs).


From June 2011 to September 2011, we enrolled 18 young children with perimembranous VSDs to receive minimally invasive device closure in our hospital. All of the patients were examined by TTE to determine the VSD morphology, diameter, and rims. During intra-operative device closure, real-time bedside TTE alone was used to guide device implantation.


Device implantation using TTE guidance was successful in 16 patients. Symmetric devices were used in 14 patients, and asymmetric devices were used in 2 patients. Only one patient experienced mild aortic regurgitation, and there were no instances of residual shunt, significant arrhythmias, thromboembolism, or device displacement. Two patients were transferred to surgical closure, one due to residual shunting and the other as a result of unsuccessful wire penetration of the VSD gap.


Our data indicate that TTE-guided VSD closure is feasible in young children, although a longer follow-up may be needed to document the long-term success.

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