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J Health Psychol. 2013 Jan;18(1):121-7. doi: 10.1177/1359105311433908. Epub 2012 Feb 9.

Depression among the urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia: a community based cross-sectional study.

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  • 1International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


This community based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression among urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence or absence of depression. The prevalence of depression among the urban poor was 12.3%. Factors significantly associated with depression included respondents under 25 years old, male gender, living in the area for less than four years and those who do not exercise regularly. It is important to identify individuals with depression and its associated factors early because depression can severely affect the quality of life.

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