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Drug Metab Dispos. 2012 May;40(5):919-27. doi: 10.1124/dmd.111.043778. Epub 2012 Feb 7.

Preclinical disposition of GDC-0973 and prospective and retrospective analysis of human dose and efficacy predictions.

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  • 1Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.


[3,4-Difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-phenyl]-((S)-3-hydroxy-3-piperidin-2-yl-azetidin-1-yl)-methanone (GDC-0973) is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 (MEK1/2), a MAPK kinase that activates ERK1/2. The objectives of these studies were to characterize the disposition of GDC-0973 in preclinical species and to determine the relationship of GDC-0973 plasma concentrations to efficacy in Colo205 mouse xenograft models. The clearance (CL) of GDC-0973 was moderate in mouse (33.5 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)), rat (37.9 ± 7.2 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)), and monkey (29.6 ± 8.5 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)). CL in dog was low (5.5 ± 0.3 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)). The volume of distribution across species was large, 6-fold to 15-fold body water; half-lives ranged from 4 to 13 h. Protein binding in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human was high, with percentage unbound, 1 to 6%. GDC-0973-related radioactivity was rapidly and extensively distributed to tissues; however, low concentrations were observed in the brain. In rats and dogs, [(14)C]GDC-0973 was well absorbed (fraction absorbed, 70-80%). The majority of [(14)C]GDC-0973-related radioactivity was recovered in the bile of rat (74-81%) and dog (65%). The CL and volume of distribution of GDC-0973 in human, predicted by allometry, was 2.9 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1) and 9.9 l/kg, respectively. The predicted half-life was 39 h. To characterize the relationship between plasma concentration of GDC-0973 and tumor growth inhibition, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling was applied using an indirect response model. The KC(50) value for tumor growth inhibition in Colo205 xenografts was estimated to be 0.389 μM, and the predicted clinical efficacious dose was ∼10 mg. Taken together, these data are useful in assessing the disposition of GDC-0973, and where available, comparisons with human data were made.

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