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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 Mar 15;259(3):376-86. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2012.01.017. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

The anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic drug caramiphen reduces seizure duration in soman-exposed rats: synergism with the benzodiazepine diazepam.

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  • 1US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5400, USA.

Abstract

Therapy of seizure activity following exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) includes treatment with the anticonvulsant diazepam (DZP), an allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors. However, seizure activity itself causes the endocytosis of GABA(A) receptors and diminishes the inhibitory effects of GABA, thereby reducing the efficacy of DZP. Treatment with an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist prevents this reduction in GABAergic inhibition. We examined the efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist caramiphen edisylate (CED; 20mg/kg, im) and DZP (10mg/kg, sc), administered both separately and in combination, at 10, 20 or 30min following seizure onset for attenuation of the deleterious effects associated with GD exposure (1.2 LD(50); 132μg/kg, sc) in rats. Outcomes evaluated were seizure duration, neuropathology, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, body weight, and temperature. We also examined the use of the reversible AChE inhibitor physostigmine (PHY; 0.2mg/kg, im) as a therapy for GD exposure. We found that the combination of CED and DZP yielded a synergistic effect, shortening seizure durations and reducing neuropathology compared to DZP alone, when treatment was delayed 20-30min after seizure onset. PHY reduced the number of animals that developed seizures, protected a fraction of AChE from GD inhibition, and attenuated post-exposure body weight and temperature loss independent of CED and/or DZP treatment. We conclude that: 1) CED and DZP treatment offers considerable protection against the effects of GD and 2) PHY is a potential therapeutic option following GD exposure, albeit with a limited window of opportunity.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

PMID:
22310180
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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