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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012 Jun;143(6):1436-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.01.018. Epub 2012 Feb 4.

Effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on expression of selected proteins involved in regulation of apoptosis in the brain of newborn piglets after cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego, CA 92123, USA. ppastuszko@rchsd.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The study objective was to investigate the effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on the expression of proteins that regulate apoptosis in newborn piglet brain after cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

METHODS:

The newborn piglets were assigned to 3 groups: (1) deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (30 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, 1 hour of low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass); (2) deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with prior injection of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (17 μg/kg 2 hours before cardiopulmonary bypass); and (3) sham-operated. After 2 hours of post-bypass recovery, the frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected. The expression of proteins was measured by gel electrophoresis or protein arrays. Data are presented in arbitrary units. Statistical analysis was performed using 1-way analysis of variance.

RESULTS:

In the frontal cortex, only Fas ligand expression was significantly lower in the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor group when compared with the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group. In the hippocampus, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor increased Bcl-2 (54.3 ± 6.4 vs 32.3 ± 2.2, P = .001) and serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (141.4 ± 19 vs 95.9 ± 21.1, P = .047) when compared with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group. Caspase-3, Bax, Fas, Fas ligand, death receptor 6, and Janus protein tyrosine kinase 2 levels were unchanged. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was 0.33 for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group and 0.93 for the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor group (P = .02). In the striatum, when compared with the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group, the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor group had higher levels of Bcl-2 (50.3 ± 7.4 vs 31.8 ± 3.8, P = .01), serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (132.7 ± 12.3 vs 14 ± 1.34, P = 2.3 × 10(6)), and Janus protein tyrosine kinase 2 (126 ± 17.4 vs 77.9 ± 13.6, P = .011), and lower levels of caspase-3 (12.8 ± 5.0 vs 32.2 ± 11.5, P = .033), Fas (390 ± 31 vs 581 ± 74, P = .038), Fas ligand (20.5 ± 11.5 vs 57.8 ± 15.6, P = .04), and death receptor 6 (57.4 ± 4.4 vs 108.8 ± 13.4, P = .007). The Bcl-2/Bax ratio was 0.25 for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and 0.44 for the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor groups (P = .046).

CONCLUSIONS:

In the piglet model of hypoxic brain injury, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor decreases proapoptotic signaling, particularly in the striatum.

Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
22306220
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3356509
Free PMC Article
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