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Antivir Ther. 2012;17(2):265-74. doi: 10.3851/IMP1956. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

Risk factors for mortality among HIV-positive patients with and without active tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.



The aim of this study was to describe risk factors for mortality and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients with and without tuberculosis (TB) coinfection.


A cohort of HIV-infected patients with CD4(+) T-cell counts of ≤200 cells/μl was recruited, consisting of 255 HIV-infected patients without active TB and 231 patients with active TB. All received a well-supervised treatment with an efavirenz-based HAART, and those coinfected with TB received appropriate anti-TB treatment. They were followed up for 48 weeks after HAART initiation.


Common presenting symptoms in HIV-only patients were fever (36.5%), headache (34.5%), skin rash (34.5%) and weight loss (32%), while in HIV-TB patients the symptoms were weight loss (58%), cough (57.6%), night sweats (44.6%) and fever (34.2%). HIV-TB patients had significantly lower body mass index, Karnofsky scores and haemoglobin levels compared to those infected with HIV only, despite similar baseline CD4(+) T-cell counts. Overall, 12 (4.7%) HIV patients developed TB and 7 (3%) HIV-TB patients had worsening of their TB symptoms during the study period. Mortality was similar in the two groups, being 10.9% (16 deaths per 100 person years) and 11.3% (17 deaths per 100 person years) in HIV-only and HIV-TB patients, respectively. Overall, more males (13.1%) died compared to females (9.6%). Predictors of mortality were presence of oral candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, low Karnofsky score, and low baseline white blood cell and CD4(+) T-cell counts.


The outcomes following well-supervised treatment of HIV-TB patients are similar to those in patients with HIV alone. Predictors of mortality were those of advanced disease.

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