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J Immunol. 2012 Mar 1;188(5):2093-101. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101118. Epub 2012 Jan 27.

Adjuvant immunotherapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: immature myeloid cells expressing CXCL10 and CXCL16 attract CXCR3+CXCR6+ and myelin-specific T cells to the draining lymph nodes rather than the central nervous system.

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  • 1Medical Research Council/University of Edinburgh Centre for Inflammation Research, Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom.


CFA is a strong adjuvant capable of stimulating cellular immune responses. Paradoxically, adjuvant immunotherapy by prior exposure to CFA or live mycobacteria suppresses the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and spontaneous diabetes in rodents. In this study, we investigated immune responses during adjuvant immunotherapy of EAE. Induction of EAE in CFA-pretreated mice resulted in a rapid influx into the draining lymph nodes (dLNs) of large numbers of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells, consisting of immature cells with ring-shaped nuclei, macrophages, and neutrophils. Concurrently, a population of mycobacteria-specific IFN-γ-producing T cells appeared in the dLNs. Immature myeloid cells in dLNs expressed the chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL16 in an IFN-γ-dependent manner. Subsequently, CD4(+) T cells coexpressing the cognate chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR6 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific CD4(+) T cells accumulated within the chemokine-expressing dLNs, rather than within the CNS. Migration of CD4(+) T cells toward dLN cells was abolished by depleting the CD11b(+) cells and was also mediated by the CD11b(+) cells alone. In addition to altering the distribution of MOG-specific T cells, adjuvant treatment suppressed development of MOG-specific IL-17. Thus, adjuvant immunotherapy of EAE requires IFN-γ, which suppresses development of the Th17 response, and diverts autoreactive T cells away from the CNS toward immature myeloid cells expressing CXCL10 and CXCL16 in the lymph nodes.

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