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J Affect Disord. 2012 Apr;138(1-2):110-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.014. Epub 2012 Jan 28.

Differences in temperament and character dimensions of personality between patients with Hwa-byung, an anger syndrome, and patients with major depressive disorder.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Bundang CHA Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam-shi, Kyounggi-do, South Korea.



This study examined differences in temperament and character dimensions of personality between patients with Hwa-byung (HB) and those with major depressive disorder (MDD).


Of 144 participants, 96 completed the Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short (TCI-RS) and the Hwa-byung Scale. We diagnosed participants according to the DSM-IV and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Hwa-byung. We compared TCI scores between the HB group (with or without MDD; N=55) and the MDD-only group (N=41) and correlated them with the total scores on six HB-specific symptoms (global HB severity) on the Hwa-byung Scale.


Compared to patients with only MDD, patients with HB with or without MDD exhibited significantly higher scores on Impulsiveness; Harm Avoidance (HA) and its subscales of Anticipatory Worry; and Self-Transcendence (ST), with its subscale of Self-Forgetfulness. However, HB patients had lower scores on Self-Directedness, with its subscales of Responsibility, and Self-Acceptance; and Acceptance. Moreover, Global HB Severity had significant, positive correlations with ST, its subscale Self-Forgetfulness, and Anticipatory Worry but negative correlations with Attachment and Compassion.


Our data are cross-sectional and self-reported, so they are subject to personal perceptual bias. The number of participants may be too low for us to generalize the results.


These results suggest that HB is a different clinical entity from MDD in relation to personality traits, and that symptoms unique to HB are closely correlated with ST.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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