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Indian J Community Med. 2011 Oct;36(4):263-7. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.91327.

Lifestyle and gallstone disease: scope for primary prevention.

Author information

  • 1Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Cases (n = 150) from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150) were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables.

RESULTS:

Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P < 0.01). Among males, the geriatric age group (<60 years) was relatively more susceptible (28%). Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%). Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention.

KEYWORDS:

Gallstone; lifestyle; risk factors

PMID:
22279255
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3263145
Free PMC Article

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