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Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan;16(1):116-23. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.91206.

Adipokines (adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhhibitor-1) in metabolic syndrome.

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  • 1Department of Endocrinology, Army Hospital (Research and Referral), Delhi Cantt, India.



The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS), which strongly predicts the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adipokines may contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance and may be a causal link between MS, diabetes and CVD. Hence, we studied the adipokines - adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) - in subjects with MS.


We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, insulin, adiponectin, and PAI-1 measurement.


Subjects with MS had lower adiponectin (4.01 ± 2.24 vs. 8.7 ± 1.77 μg/ml; P < 0.0001) and higher PAI-1 (53.85 ± 16.45 vs. 17.35 ± 4.45 ng/ml; P < 0.0001) levels than controls. Both were related with the number of metabolic abnormalities. Adiponectin was negatively and PAI-1 was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio (WHR), body fat mass, percent body fat, and all the parameters of MS, except HDL where the pattern reversed. WHR and triglycerides were independent predictors of adipokines in multiple regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that adiponectin (6.7 μg/ml) and PAI-1 (25.0 ng/ml) levels predicted the MS with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in Indian population.


Subjects with MS have lower adiponectin and higher PAI-1 levels compared to healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve the various components of MS, and hence there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent the ongoing epidemic of diabetes and CVD.


Adiponectin; hsCRP; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

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