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Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(12):9296-331. doi: 10.3390/ijms12129296. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

Molecular system bioenergics of the heart: experimental studies of metabolic compartmentation and energy fluxes versus computer modeling.

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  • 1Institute of Experimental Cardiology, Cardiology Research Center, Moscow, 121552, Russia.


In this review we analyze the recent important and remarkable advancements in studies of compartmentation of adenine nucleotides in muscle cells due to their binding to macromolecular complexes and cellular structures, which results in non-equilibrium steady state of the creatine kinase reaction. We discuss the problems of measuring the energy fluxes between different cellular compartments and their simulation by using different computer models. Energy flux determinations by (18)O transfer method have shown that in heart about 80% of energy is carried out of mitochondrial intermembrane space into cytoplasm by phosphocreatine fluxes generated by mitochondrial creatine kinase from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), produced by ATP Synthasome. We have applied the mathematical model of compartmentalized energy transfer for analysis of experimental data on the dependence of oxygen consumption rate on heart workload in isolated working heart reported by Williamson et al. The analysis of these data show that even at the maximal workloads and respiration rates, equal to 174 μmol O(2) per min per g dry weight, phosphocreatine flux, and not ATP, carries about 80-85% percent of energy needed out of mitochondria into the cytosol. We analyze also the reasons of failures of several computer models published in the literature to correctly describe the experimental data.


energy transfer; heart; mathematical modeling; phosphocreatine; respiration

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