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Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Mar 1;54(5):661-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir905. Epub 2012 Jan 19.

H1N1 antibody persistence 1 year after immunization with an adjuvanted or whole-virion pandemic vaccine and immunogenicity and reactogenicity of subsequent seasonal influenza vaccine: a multicenter follow-on study.

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  • 1Southampton NIHR Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We investigated antibody persistence in children 1 year after 2 doses of either an AS03(B)-adjuvanted split-virion or nonadjuvanted whole-virion monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine and assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a subsequent dose of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV).

METHODS:

Children previously immunized at age 6 months to 12 years in the original study were invited to participate. After a blood sample was obtained to assess persistence of antibody against swine influenza A/H1N1(2009) pandemic influenza, children received 1 dose of 2010/2011 TIV, reactogenicity data were collected for 7 days, and another blood sample was obtained 21 days after vaccination.

RESULTS:

Of 323 children recruited, 302 received TIV. Antibody persistence (defined as microneutralization [MN] titer ≥1:40) 1 year after initial vaccination was significantly higher in the AS03(B)-adjuvanted compared with the whole-virion vaccine group, 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.1%-100%) vs 32.4% (95% CI, 21.5%-44.8%) in children immunized <3 years old and 96.9% (95% CI, 91.3%-99.4%) vs 65.9% (95% CI, 55.3%-75.5%) in those 3-12 years old at immunization, respectively (P < .001 for both groups). All children receiving TIV had post-vaccination MN titers ≥1:40. Although TIV was well tolerated in all groups, reactogenicity in children <5 years old was slightly greater in those who originally received AS03(B)-adjuvanted vaccine.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study provides serological evidence that 2 doses of AS03(B)-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine may be sufficient to maintain protection across 2 influenza seasons. Administration of TIV to children who previously received 2 doses of either pandemic influenza vaccine is safe and is immunogenic for the H1N1 strain.

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