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Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;95(3):572-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.018077. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Habitual dietary sodium intake is inversely associated with coronary flow reserve in middle-aged male twins.

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  • 1Nutrition and Health Sciences Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence links dietary sodium to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but investigation of its influence on cardiovascular function is limited.

OBJECTIVE:

We examined the relation between habitual dietary sodium and coronary flow reserve (CFR), which is a measure of overall coronary vasodilator capacity and microvascular function. We hypothesized that increased sodium consumption is associated with lower CFR.

DESIGN:

Habitual daily sodium intake for the previous 12 mo was measured in 286 male middle-aged twins (133 monozygotic and dizygotic pairs and 20 unpaired twins) by using the Willett food-frequency questionnaire. CFR was measured by positron emission tomography [N(13)]-ammonia, with quantitation of myocardial blood flow at rest and after adenosine stress. Mixed-effects regression analysis was used to assess the association between dietary sodium and CFR.

RESULTS:

An increase in dietary sodium of 1000 mg/d was associated with a 10.0% lower CFR (95% CI: -17.0%, -2.5%) after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, and CVD risk factors (P = 0.01). Across quintiles of sodium consumption, dietary sodium was inversely associated with CFR (P-trend = 0.03), with the top quintile (>1456 mg/d) having a 20% lower CFR than the bottom quintile (<732 mg /d). This association also persisted within pairs: a 1000-mg/d difference in dietary sodium between brothers was associated with a 10.3% difference in CFR after adjustment for potential confounders (P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Habitual dietary sodium is inversely associated with CFR independent of CVD risk factors and shared familial and genetic factors. Our study suggests a potential novel mechanism for the adverse effects of dietary sodium on the cardiovascular system. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00017836.

PMID:
22258268
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3278238
Free PMC Article

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