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Anat Cell Biol. 2011 Dec;44(4):256-64. doi: 10.5115/acb.2011.44.4.256. Epub 2011 Dec 30.

Prospect of cell therapy for Parkinson's disease.

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  • Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.


The hallmark of Parkinson's disease is on-going degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which may be due to various etiologies. Various approaches to alleviate symptoms are available, such as life-long pharmacological intervention, deep brain stimulation, and transplantation of dopaminergic neuron-containing fetal tissue. However, each of these approaches has a disadvantage. Several studies have shown that various kinds of stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and other cells can differentiate into dopaminergic neurons and may be promising for treating Parkinson's disease in the future. Therefore, this review addresses those cells in terms of their prospects in cell therapy for Parkinson's disease. In addition, the need for safety and efficacy studies, various cell delivery modes and sites, and possible side effects will be discussed.


Parkinson disease; Putamen; Stem cells; Striatum; Substantia nigra

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