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J Urol. 2012 Mar;187(3):1063-70. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.10.131. Epub 2012 Jan 15.

Early detection of carcinoma in situ of the bladder: a comparative study of white light cystoscopy, narrow band imaging, 5-ALA fluorescence cystoscopy and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5281, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We compared the efficacy and potential limitations of white light cystoscopy, narrow band imaging, 5-ALA fluorescence cystoscopy and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography for early diagnosis of bladder carcinoma in situ.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

By expressing simian virus 40T antigen in the urothelium carcinoma in situ typically develops in SV40T transgenic mice in about 8 to 20 weeks and then frank high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma starts to emerge. A total of 18 control and 29 SV40T mice were examined during weeks 8 to 22 by white light cystoscopy, fluorescence cystoscopy, narrow band imaging and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography. Results were validated by histology. Newly improved algorithms for computer aided detection were applied to acquired 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography images to enhance the quantitative diagnosis of carcinoma in situ in near real time.

RESULTS:

Of 29 carcinoma in situ samples 27 were detected by 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography, 1 by white light cystoscopy, 26 by narrow band imaging and 13 by fluorescence cystoscopy. Of the 18 histologically confirmed benign cases 17 were detected by 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography, 14 by white light cystoscopy, 5 by narrow band imaging and 18 by fluorescence cystoscopy. The diagnostic sensitivity of white light cystoscopy (3.4%) and fluorescence cystoscopy (44.8%), and the specificity of narrow band imaging (27.8%) were significantly enhanced by 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography to 93.1% and 94.4%, respectively (p <0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography with quantitative computer aided detection can significantly enhance the sensitivity of white light cystoscopy and fluorescence cystoscopy, and the specificity of narrow band imaging for early diagnosis of carcinoma in situ. This suggests the potential of narrow band imaging guided 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography for future clinical detection of carcinoma in situ when effective image guidance is desirable.

Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
22245332
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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