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Genet Med. 2012 Jan;14(1):81-9. doi: 10.1038/gim.0b013e3182310b7d. Epub 2011 Oct 7.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to FAS mutations outside the signal-transducing death domain: molecular mechanisms and clinical penetrance.

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  • 1Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is a disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis. Although FAS molecules bearing mutations in the signal-transducing intracellular death domain exhibit dominant-negative interference with FAS-mediated apoptosis, mechanisms for pathology of non-death domain FAS mutations causing autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome are poorly defined.

METHODS:

RNA stability, protein expression, ligand binding, and ability to transmit apoptosis signals by anti-FAS antibody or FAS ligand were determined for a cohort of 39 patients with non-death domain autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Correlations between mutation type and disease penetrance were established in mutation-positive family members.

RESULTS:

Frameshifts or transcriptional stop mutations before exon 7 resulted in messenger RNA haploinsufficiency, whereas an amino-terminal signal sequence mutation and certain intracellular truncations prevented cell surface localization of FAS. All resulted in decreased FAS localization, inability to bind FAS ligand, and reduced FAS ligand-induced apoptosis. Extracellular missense mutations and in-frame deletions expressed defective FAS protein, failed to bind FAS ligand, and exhibited dominant-negative interference with FAS-mediated apoptosis. Mutation-positive relatives with haploinsufficient or extracellular mutations had lower penetrance of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome clinical phenotypes than did relatives with death domain mutations.

CONCLUSION:

We have defined molecular mechanisms by which non-death domain FAS mutations result in reduced lymphocyte apoptosis, established a hierarchy of genotype-phenotype correlation among mutation-positive relatives of patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, and demonstrated that FAS haploinsufficiency can lead to autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

PMID:
22237435
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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