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J Chromatogr A. 2012 Jan 27;1222:59-70. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.12.017. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

Comparison of two officinal Chinese pharmacopoeia species of Ganoderma based on chemical research with multiple technologies and chemometrics analysis.

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  • 1Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.



To investigate the chemical differences between Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Chizhi) and Ganoderma sinense (G. sinense, Zizhi).


Thirty two batches of commercial Ganoderma samples were collected, including 20 batches of G. lucidum and 12 batches of G. sinense cultivated in different geographical regions. Chemical substances in aqueous extract and alcoholic extract, mainly polysaccharides and triterpenes respectively, were investigated. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out with a high performance liquid chromatography with an variable wavelength detector. Meanwhile, analysis of triterpenes were performed on an ultraviolet spectrophotometer, an ultra performance liquid chromatography and a rapid resolution liquid chromatograph combined with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. Chromatograms and spectra for all batches and reference standards of main components were obtained and used for direct comparison. Further discussion was made on the basis of the result of principal component analysis (PCA).


Significant difference of triterpenes was shown between G. lucidum and G. sinense. In 20 batches of G. lucidum, 12 main components, including eight ganoderic acids and four ganoderenic acids were identified and ten of them were quantitatively determined, with the total content from 0.249% to 0.690%. However, none of those triterpenes was found in either batch of G. sinense. As for constituents of polysaccharides, seven monosaccharides were identified and four main components among them were quantitatively determined. Difference of polysaccharides was not directly observed, but latent information was revealed by PCA and the discrimination became feasible.


G. lucidum and G. sinense were chemically different, which might result in pharmacological distinction. Preparations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from Ganoderma should make accurate specification on the origin of species.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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