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Pharmacognosy Res. 2011 Oct;3(4):250-5. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.89745.

Protective effects of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through inhibition of CYP2E1 in rats.

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  • 1Department of Geriatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) inhibits various cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms such as CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A in vitro. High doses of acetaminophen (APAP) generate the highly reactive intermediate, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), catalyzed mainly by CYP2E1. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of orally administrated goldenseal against APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF) via inhibition of CYP2E1.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Male Wistar rats were treated orally with goldenseal (300 and 1000 mg/kg) 2, 18, and 26 h before and 6 h after oral APAP (400 mg/kg) administration. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities as well as serum APAP concentration were evaluated.

RESULTS:

Goldenseal extract inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A activity, and the inhibitory effect on CYP2E1 was the strongest (IC(50) 4.32 μg/mL). Treatment with goldenseal (300 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the APAP-induced increase in serum AST and ALT, and the hepatoprotective effect of goldenseal was stronger than that of silymarin (200 mg/kg). Moreover, serum APAP concentration was increased by goldenseal treatment, presumably as a result of the inhibitory effect of goldenseal on the metabolism of APAP to NAPQI.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggest that goldenseal ameliorates APAP-induced ALF and that this protection can likely be attributed to the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity, which generates the highly reactive intermediate of APAP.

KEYWORDS:

Acetaminophen; CYP2E1; acute liver failure; goldenseal; hepatoprotective effect

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