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Inorg Chem. 2012 Jan 16;51(2):1068-83. doi: 10.1021/ic202198k. Epub 2011 Dec 27.

Copper(II) carboxylate dimers prepared from ligands designed to form a robust π···π stacking synthon: supramolecular structures and molecular properties.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, United States.


The reactions of bifunctional carboxylate ligands (1,8-naphthalimido)propanoate, (L(C2)(-)), (1,8-naphthalimido)ethanoate, (L(C1)(-)), and (1,8-naphthalimido)benzoate, (L(C4)(-)) with Cu(2)(O(2)CCH(3))(4)(H(2)O)(2) in methanol or ethanol at room temperature lead to the formation of novel dimeric [Cu(2)(L(C2))(4)(MeOH)(2)] (1), [Cu(2)(L(C1))(4)(MeOH)(2)]·2(CH(2)Cl(2)) (2), [Cu(2)(L(C4))(4)(EtOH)(2)]·2(CH(2)Cl(2)) (3) complexes. When the reaction of L(C1)(-) with Cu(2)(O(2)CCH(3))(4)(H(2)O)(2) was carried out at -20 °C in the presence of pyridine, [Cu(2)(L(C1))(4)(py)(4)]·2(CH(2)Cl(2)) (4) was produced. At the core of complexes 1-3 lies the square Cu(2)(O(2)CR)(4) "paddlewheel" secondary building unit, where the two copper centers have a nearly square pyramidal geometry with methanol or ethanol occupying the axial coordination sites. Complex 4 contains a different type of dimeric core generated by two κ(1)-bridging carboxylate ligands. Additionally, two terminal carboxylates and four trans situated pyridine molecules complete the coordination environment of the five-coordinate copper(II) centers. In all four compounds, robust π···π stacking interactions of the naphthalimide rings organize the dimeric units into two-dimensional sheets. These two-dimensional networks are organized into a three-dimensional architecture by two different noncovalent interactions: strong π···π stacking of the naphthalimide rings (also the pyridine rings for 4) in 1, 3, and 4, and intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the coordinated methanol or ethanol molecules in 1-3. Magnetic measurements show that the copper ions in the paddlewheel complexes 1-3 are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled with -J values ranging from 255 to 325 cm(-1), whereas the copper ions in 4 are only weakly antiferromagnetically coupled. Typical values of the zero-field splitting parameter D were found from EPR studies of 1-3and the related known complexes [Cu(2)(L(C2))(4)(py)(2)]·2(CH(2)Cl(2))·(CH(3)OH), [Cu(2)(L(C3))(4)(py)(2)]·2(CH(2)Cl(2)) and [Cu(2)(L(C3))(4)(bipy)]·(CH(3)OH)(2)·(CH(2)Cl(2))(3.37) (L(C3)(-) = (1,8-naphthalimido)butanoate)), while its abnormal magnitude in [Cu(2)(L(C2))(4)(bipy)] was qualitatively rationalized by structural analysis and DFT calculations.

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