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Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 May;59(5):628-35. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.10.050. Epub 2011 Dec 28.

Risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals: traditional and HIV-related factors.

Author information

  • 1Division of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite improvements in survival with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, kidney disease remains an important complication. Few studies have evaluated risk factors associated with the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected individuals. We sought to identify traditional and HIV-related risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals and compare ESRD risk by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria levels.

STUDY DESIGN:

Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

22,156 HIV-infected veterans without pre-existing ESRD receiving health care in the Veterans' Affairs medical system between 1996 and 2004.

PREDICTORS:

Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin <3.5 mg/dL), CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus coinfection, proteinuria, and eGFR were identified using the Veterans' Affairs electronic record system.

OUTCOMES:

ESRD was ascertained by the US Renal Data System.

RESULTS:

366 cases of ESRD occurred, corresponding to 3 cases/1,000 person-years. Hypertension (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4), diabetes (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2), and cardiovascular disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.7) were associated independently with ESRD risk in multivariate-adjusted models, as were CD4 lymphocyte count <200 cells/μL (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0), HIV viral load ≥30,000 copies/mL (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5-2.8), hepatitis C virus coinfection (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.4), and hypoalbuminemia (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.5). Compared with persons without chronic kidney disease, defined as eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and no proteinuria, lower eGFR and higher proteinuria categories were associated jointly with exponentially higher ESRD rates, ranging from 6.6 events/1,000 person-years for persons with urine protein excretion of 30-100 mg/dL and eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) to 193 events/1,000 person-years for persons with urine protein excretion ≥300 mg/dL and eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2).

LIMITATIONS:

Results may not be generalizable to female and nonveteran populations.

CONCLUSIONS:

In HIV-infected persons, ESRD risk appears attributable to a combination of traditional and HIV-related risk factors for kidney disease. Combining eGFR and proteinuria for chronic kidney disease staging is most effective for stratifying the risk of ESRD.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

PMID:
22206742
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3324595
Free PMC Article

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