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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jan 10;109(2):425-30. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1106077109. Epub 2011 Dec 27.

Schooling in adolescence raises IQ scores.

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  • 1Research Department, Statistics Norway, 0033 Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

Although some scholars maintain that education has little effect on intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, others claim that IQ scores are indeed malleable, primarily through intervention in early childhood. The causal effect of education on IQ at later ages is often difficult to uncover because analyses based on observational data are plagued by problems of reverse causation and self-selection into further education. We exploit a reform that increased compulsory schooling from 7 to 9 y in Norway in the 1960s to estimate the effect of education on IQ. We find that this schooling reform, which primarily affected education in the middle teenage years, had a substantial effect on IQ scores measured at the age of 19 y.

PMID:
22203952
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3258640
Free PMC Article

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