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Sci Total Environ. 2012 Feb 1;416:513-26. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.012. Epub 2011 Dec 24.

The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure.

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  • 1Centro Universitário Univates, Pró Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensão e Pós Graduação, Programa de Pós Graduação Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, Brazil.


Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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