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Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):1077-85. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511006489. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

Fruit, vegetables, fibre and micronutrients and risk of US renal cell carcinoma.

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  • 1Department of Behavioural and Social Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.


The association between renal cell cancer (RCC) and intake of fruit, vegetables and nutrients was examined in a population-based case-control study of 323 cases and 1827 controls; dietary intake was obtained using a mailed questionnaire. Cancer risks were estimated by OR and 95 % CI, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, obesity, hypertension, proxy status, alcohol consumption and dietary fat intake and energy. Intake of vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of RCC (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·7; P trend = 0·002), (top compared to the bottom quartile of intake). When intake of individual nutrients was investigated, vegetable fibre intake was associated with decreased risks (OR 0·4; 95 % CI 0·2, 0·6; P < 0·001), but this was not the case with fruit fibre (OR 0·7; 95 % CI 0·4, 1·1) or grain fibre (OR 1·0; 95 % CI 0·6, 1·5). β-Cryptoxanthin and lycopene were also associated with decreased risks, but when both were included in a mutually adjusted backwards stepwise regression model, only β-cryptoxanthin remained significant (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·8). When other micronutrients and types of fibre were investigated together, only vegetable fibre and β-cryptoxanthin had significant trends (P < 0·01) (OR 0·6; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·9) (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·9), respectively. These findings were stronger in those aged over 65 years (P interaction = 0·001). Among non-smokers, low intake of cruciferous vegetables and fruit fibre was also associated with increased risk of RCC (P interaction = 0·03); similar inverse associations were found for β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and vitamin C. When nutrients were mutually adjusted by backwards regression in these subgroups, only β-cryptoxanthin remained associated with lower RCC risk. These findings deserve further investigation in ongoing prospective studies when sample size becomes sufficient.

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