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J Neurochem. 2012 Mar;120(5):818-29. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07622.x. Epub 2012 Jan 23.

Vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemic retina and its regulation by somatostatin.

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  • 1Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy.


In a retinal ischemic ex vivo model, we have reported protective effects of somatostatin (SRIF) receptor 2 (sst(2) ). As an ischemic condition not only causes cell death but also induces a vascular response, we asked whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is altered in this model and whether its expression, release or localization are affected by sst(2) activation. Ex vivo retinas of wild-type (WT) and sst(1) KO mice (which over-express sst(2) ) were incubated in ischemic conditions with SRIF, octreotide (OCT) or a VEGF trap. Ischemia in WT retinas caused increase of VEGF release and decrease of VEGF mRNA. Both effects were counteracted by SRIF or OCT. VEGF immunoreactivity was in retinal neurons and scarcely in vessels. Ischemia caused a significant shift of VEGF immunoreactivity from neurons to vessels. The increase of vascular VEGF was reduced in sst(1) KO retinas and in WT retinas treated with SRIF or OCT. VEGF trap also limited this increase, demonstrating that vascular VEGF was of extracellular origin. Together, the data show a VEGF response to ischemia, in which VEGF released by damaged neurons reaches the retinal capillaries. The activation of sst(2) protects neurons from ischemic damage, thereby limiting VEGF release and the VEGF response.

© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

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