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AIDS Res Treat. 2011;2011:154945. doi: 10.1155/2011/154945. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

The Use of Bioinformatics for Studying HIV Evolutionary and Epidemiological History in South America.

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  • 1Laboratório de Imunologia e Aids, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.


The South American human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic is driven by several subtypes (B, C, and F1) and circulating and unique recombinant forms derived from those subtypes. Those variants are heterogeneously distributed around the continent in a country-specific manner. Despite some inconsistencies mainly derived from sampling biases and analytical constrains, most of studies carried out in the area agreed in pointing out specificities in the evolutionary dynamics of the circulating HIV-1 lineages. In this paper, we covered the theoretical basis, and the application of bioinformatics methods to reconstruct the HIV spatial-temporal dynamics, unveiling relevant information to understand the origin, geographical dissemination and the current molecular scenario of the HIV epidemic in the continent, particularly in the countries of Southern Cone.

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