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Genome Biol Evol. 2012;4(2):89-101. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evr131. Epub 2011 Dec 7.

Mitochondrial genome sequences of Nematocera (lower Diptera): evidence of rearrangement following a complete genome duplication in a winter crane fly.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.


The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented.

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