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Br J Gen Pract. 2011 Sep;61(590):e573-8. doi: 10.3399/bjgp11X593857.

Minimal interventions to decrease long-term use of benzodiazepines in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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  • 1Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Erratum in

  • Br J Gen Pract. 2013 Jan;63(606):12.



Long-term use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) is common. Not only is such use ineffective, but it also has several risks in addition to dependence, and remains a significant problem among the older population.


To systematically review randomised controlled trials that evaluate the effectiveness of minimal interventions to reduce the long-term use of BZDs in primary care.


Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in UK general practices.


Cochrane Central, MEDLINE, and Embase (1967-2010) were searched for trials of minimal interventions (such as a single letter or one consultation from a GP) for patients in primary care with long-term (>3 months) BZD use. Pooled risk differences were calculated with 95% confidence intervals.


From 646 potentially relevant abstracts, three studies (615 patients) met all the inclusion criteria. The pooled risk ratio showed a significant reduction/cessation in BZD consumption in the minimal intervention groups compared to usual care (risk ratio [RR] = 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 2.8, [corrected] P<0.001; RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.3, P = 0.008) respectively. Two studies also reported a significant proportional reduction in consumption of BZD from baseline to 6 months in intervention groups compared to the control group. The secondary outcome of general health status was measured in two studies; both showed a significant improvement in the intervention group.


A brief intervention in the form of either a letter or a single consultation by GPs, for long-term users of BZD, is an effective and efficient strategy to decrease or stop their medication, without causing adverse consequences.

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