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PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e27711. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027711. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Impact of meat consumption, preparation, and mutagens on aggressive prostate cancer.

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  • 1Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The association between meat consumption and prostate cancer remains unclear, perhaps reflecting heterogeneity in the types of tumors studied and the method of meat preparation--which can impact the production of carcinogens.

METHODS:

We address both issues in this case-control study focused on aggressive prostate cancer (470 cases and 512 controls), where men reported not only their meat intake but also their meat preparation and doneness level on a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between overall and grilled meat consumption, doneness level, ensuing carcinogens and aggressive prostate cancer were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS:

Higher consumption of any ground beef or processed meats were positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer, with ground beef showing the strongest association (OR = 2.30, 95% CI:1.39-3.81; P-trend = 0.002). This association primarily reflected intake of grilled or barbequed meat, with more well-done meat conferring a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Comparing high and low consumptions of well/very well cooked ground beef to no consumption gave OR's of 2.04 (95% CI:1.41-2.96) and 1.51 (95% CI:1.06-2.14), respectively. In contrast, consumption of rare/medium cooked ground beef was not associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Looking at meat mutagens produced by cooking at high temperatures, we detected an increased risk with 2-amino-3,8-Dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]Quinolaxine (MelQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)qunioxaline (DiMelQx), when comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake: OR = 1.69 (95% CI:1.08-2.64;P-trend = 0.02) and OR = 1.53 (95% CI:1.00-2.35; P-trend = 0.005), respectively.

DISCUSSION:

Higher intake of well-done grilled or barbequed red meat and ensuing carcinogens could increase the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

Comment in

PMID:
22132129
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3223211
Free PMC Article
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