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J Virol. 2012 Feb;86(3):1589-607. doi: 10.1128/JVI.05754-11. Epub 2011 Nov 30.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen and angiogenin interact with common host proteins, including annexin A2, which is essential for survival of latently infected cells.

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  • 1H. M. Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, USA.


Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) upregulate the multifunctional protein angiogenin (ANG). Our studies demonstrate that silencing ANG or inhibiting its nuclear translocation downregulates KSHV LANA-1 expression and ANG is necessary for KSHV latency, anti-apoptosis and angiogenesis (Sadagopan et al., J. Virol. 83:3342-3364, 2009; Sadagopan et al., J Virol. 85:2666-2685, 2011). Here we show that LANA-1 interacts with ANG and colocalizes in latently infected endothelial telomerase-immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial (TIVE-LTC) cells. Mass spectrometric analyses of TIVE-LTC proteins immunoprecipitated by anti-LANA-1 and ANG antibodies identified 28 common cellular proteins such as ribosomal proteins, structural proteins, tRNA synthetases, metabolic pathway enzymes, chaperons, transcription factors, antioxidants, and ubiquitin proteosome proteins. LANA-1 and ANG interaction with one of the proteins, annexin A2, was validated. Annexin A2 has been shown to play roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, plasmin generation, exocytosis, endocytosis, and cytoskeleton reorganization. It is also known to associate with glycolytic enzyme 3-phosphoglyceratekinase in the primer recognition protein (PRP) complex that interacts with DNA polymerase α in the lagging strand of DNA during replication. A higher level of annexin A2 is expressed in KSHV+ but not in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ B-lymphoma cell lines. Annexin A2 colocalized with several LANA-1 punctate spots in KSHV+ body cavity B-cell lymphoma (BCBL-1) cells. In triple-staining analyses, we observed annexin A2-ANG-LANA-1, annexin A2-ANG, and ANG-LANA-1 colocalizations. Annexin A2 appeared as punctate nuclear dots in LANA-1-positive TIVE-LTC cells. In LANA-1-negative TIVE-LTC cells, annexin A2 was detected predominately in the cytoplasm, with some nuclear spots, and colocalization with ANG was observed mostly in the cytoplasm. Annexin A2 coimmunoprecipitated with LANA-1 and ANG in TIVE-LTC and BCBL-1 cells and with ANG in 293T cells independent of LANA-1. This suggested that annexin A2 forms a complex with LANA-1 and ANG as well as a separate complex with ANG. Silencing annexin A2 in BCBL-1 cells resulted in significant cell death, downregulation of cell cycle-associated Cdk6 and of cyclin D, E, and A proteins, and downregulation of LANA-1 and ANG expression. No effect was seen in KSHV⁻ lymphoma (BJAB and Ramos) and 293T cells. These studies suggest that LANA-1 association with annexin A2/ANG could be more important than ANG association with annexin A2, and KSHV probably uses annexin A2 to maintain the viability and cell cycle regulation of latently infected cells. Since the identified LANA-1- and ANG-interacting common cellular proteins are hitherto unknown to KSHV and ANG biology, this offers a starting point for further analysis of their roles in KSHV biology, which may lead to identification of potential therapeutic targets to control KSHV latency and associated malignancies.

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