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J Histochem Cytochem. 1990 Nov;38(11):1669-75.

Multimarker immunohistochemical staining of calgranulins, chloroacetate esterase, and S100 for simultaneous demonstration of inflammatory cells on paraffin sections.

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  • 1Istituto di Anatomia Patologica, Universita' di Verona, Italy.


Mac387 monoclonal antibody (MAb) recognizes two calcium binding, myeloid-associated proteins, now termed calgranulins, expressed at high levels by neutrophils and monocytes. Calgranulins are related to migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and are lost in a few days from monocytes differentiated in vitro. This marker is therefore potentially useful to analyze macrophage heterogeneity and turnover in tissue sections. In this study, we developed an immunohistochemical multimarker technique, including calgranulin demonstration, suitable for analyzing different inflammatory cells on paraffin-embedded material. The technique was carried out in subsequent steps demonstrating (a) naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase (CAE); (b) S100 immunoreactivity using a rabbit antibody in peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) staining; and (c) Mac387 immunoreactivity using the alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) technique. CAE staining was introduced in this method to distinguish Mac387+/CAE- macrophages from Mac387+/CAE+ neutrophils, and Mac387-/CAE+ mast cells. S100 protein is strongly expressed within lymphoid tissues by dendritic accessory cells and was then applied to distinguish these cells from S100-macrophages. We have also verified the possibility of reducing the staining time for this time-consuming procedure by use of microwave irradiation. The technique was applied to a representative variety of normal and pathological samples to assess its usefulness for study of cell heterogeneity. Our results showed the multimarker technique to be highly informative in the study of inflammatory lesions (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoid and cat-scratch granulomas, dermathopathic lymphadenopathy), and is of wide potential value as an aid to histopathological diagnosis of several diseases.

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