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Oman Med J. 2011 Sep;26(5):349-52. doi: 10.5001/omj.2011.85.

Detection of Cytomorphological Changes in Oral Mucosa among Alcoholics and Cigarette Smokers.

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  • 1Department of Histopathology and Cytology, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum-Sudan.



This study aimed to detect the cytomorphological changes in buccal mucosa among alcoholics and cigarette smokers.


Buccal smears were collected from 200 volunteers; 50 were alcoholics, 50 were cigarette smokers, 50 were alcoholic and cigarette smokers, and another 50 were treated as a control group (neither drinkers nor smokers). The smokers and alcoholics included in this study had been continuously exposed for more than 5 years. Smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique.


The cytological assessment in the alcoholics group revealed; atypical cellular changes detected in four individuals, bacteria was found in smears of 16 individuals; 18% cocci and 14% actinomyces species were also detected. Hyperkeratosis was detected in five individuals, while 25 individuals showed no oral changes. In the smokers group; atypical cellular changes were seen in six individuals and bacteria were detected in the smears of 15 individuals; 18% cocci and 12% Actinomyces species. Hyperkeratosis was observed in 14% of the individuals, but 44% showed no oral cytological changes. In the cigarette smoking and alcoholics group; atypical cellular changes were detected in only 14%, while bacteria were detected in 54% of smears; 32% were cocci and 16% were Actinomyces species. Changes in cells infected by human papilloma virus were detected in 4% and monilia in 2% of the cases. Also, 20% of the individuals showed hyperkeratosis and 12% showed no lesions.


The study proved that alcohol and cigarette smoking are risk factors for oral atypical cellular changes and possibly of oral infection. The degree of change depends on the duration of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking.


Alcoholics; Cigarette smoking; Oral cytology

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