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World J Biol Chem. 2011 Nov 26;2(11):239-45. doi: 10.4331/wjbc.v2.i11.239.

Vacuole import and degradation pathway: Insights into a specialized autophagy pathway.

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  • 1Abbas A Alibhoy, Hui-Ling Chiang, Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, United States.


Glucose deprivation induces the synthesis of pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and isocitrate lyase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, following glucose replenishment, these gluconeogenic enzymes are inactivated and degraded. Studies have characterized the mechanisms by which these enzymes are inactivated in response to glucose. The site of degradation of these proteins has also been ascertained to be dependent on the duration of starvation. Glucose replenishment of short-term starved cells results in these proteins being degraded in the proteasome. In contrast, addition of glucose to cells starved for a prolonged period results in these proteins being degraded in the vacuole. In the vacuole dependent pathway, these proteins are sequestered in specialized vesicles termed vacuole import and degradation (Vid). These vesicles converge with the endocytic pathway and deliver their cargo to the vacuole for degradation. Recent studies have identified that internalization, as mediated by actin polymerization, is essential for delivery of cargo proteins to the vacuole for degradation. In addition, components of the target of rapamycin complex 1 interact with cargo proteins during glucose starvation. Furthermore, Tor1p dissociates from cargo proteins following glucose replenishment. Future studies will be needed to elaborate on the importance of internalization at the plasma membrane and the subsequent import of cargo proteins into Vid vesicles in the vacuole dependent degradation pathway.


Actin polymerization; Autophagy; Endocytosis; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; Proteasome; Target of rapamycin complex 1; Vacuole; Vacuole import and degradation

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