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Surv Ophthalmol. 2011 Nov-Dec;56(6):474-510. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2011.05.003.

Systemic therapy with conventional and novel immunomodulatory agents for ocular inflammatory disease.

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  • 1Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.


Ocular inflammatory disease is the third leading cause of blindness in the United States. In addition to the conventional immunomodulatory agents, which include antimetabolites, alkylating agents, and antibiotics such as cyclosporine, many of which have been used in the treatment of this disease for decades, several new treatment modalities have emerged within the past 10 years. We review in detail the characteristics, safety, and efficacy of the conventional immunomodulators, the more novel agents such as the biologics, and investigational drugs that appear promising in the treatment of ocular inflammatory disease.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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