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Minerva Chir. 2011 Oct;66(5):375-84.

Management of gynecomastia: an outcome analysis in a multicentric study.

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  • 1Department of General and Specialistic Surgery Plastic, S.Maria alle Scotte University Hospital, Siena, Italy.



Male gynecomastia (MG), the most frequent mammary anomaly in human males, is a clinical disease occurring mainly in adolescence and old age. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze 126 consecutive cases of mixed gynecomastia, in order to assess the incidence of early and late postoperative complications and to evaluate the aesthetic results and the quality of life after surgery.


From January 1st, 2000, to December 31st, 2006 a total of 126 cases of MG were performed by the Plastic Surgery Units of Siena and Pisa. Patients' average age was 28 years, 111 patients (88%) presented bilateral MG, and 15 (11.9%) had monolateral MG. The prevalent surgical approach was adenomammectomy with periareolar inferior or inverted "Omega" incision, other technique included circumareolar or vertical scar incision and liposuction. Before and one year after surgery, all patients were given a questionnaires to evaluate the motivations leading to the request of a treatment ,the degree of satisfaction related to the result and the improvement of the quality of life.


Overall complication rate was 17.72% All patients reported an improvement in their quality of life with an average score of satisfaction of 8.2/10.


Patients' degree of satisfaction was high, surgery, in fact, has contributed in all cases to improve their quality of life. On the basis of the short operating time and of the few sequele, we suggest to the patients affected by gynecomastia to undergo surgery always and as soon as possible. A separated analysis of the data obtained by the two University Centres show that they overlap in respect to the sample, the employed technique and results.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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