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AIDS. 2012 Jan 28;26(3):315-23. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834e8805.

Long-term exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy and risk of death from specific causes: no evidence for any previously unidentified increased risk due to antiretroviral therapy.

Collaborators (157)

van Lunzen J, Degen O, Stellbrink HJ, Staszewski S, Goethe JW, Bogner J, Fätkenheuer G, Gargalianos P, Xylomenos G, Perdios J, Panos G, Filandras A, Karabatsaki E, Sambatakou H, Banhegyi D, Mulcahy F, Yust I, Turner D, Burke M, Pollack S, Hassoun G, Maayan S, Vella S, Esposito R, Mazeu I, Mussini C, Arici C, Pristera R, Mazzotta F, Gabbuti A, Vullo V, Lichtner M, Chirianni A, Montesarchio E, Gargiulo M, Antonucci G, Testa A, Narciso P, Vlassi C, Zaccarelli M, Lazzarin A, Castagna A, Gianotti N, Galli M, Ridolfo A, Monforte A, Rozentale B, Zeltina I, Chaplinskas S, Hemmer R, Staub T, Reiss P, Ormaasen V, Maeland A, Bruun J, Knysz B, Gasiorowski J, Horban A, Bakowska E, Grzeszczuk A, Flisiak R, Boron-Kaczmarska A, Pynka M, Parczewski M, Beniowski M, Mularska E, Trocha H, Jablonowska E, Malolepsza E, Wojcik K, Antunes F, Doroana M, Caldeira L, Mansinho K, Maltez F, Duiculescu D, Babes V, Rakhmanova A, Zakharova N, Buzunova S, Jevtovic D, Mokrás M, Staneková D, Tomazic J, González-Lahoz J, Soriano V, Labarga P, Medrano J, Moreno S, Clotet B, Jou A, Paredes R, Tural C, Puig J, Bravo I, Gatell JM, Miró JM, Domingo P, Gutierrez M, Mateo G, Sambeat MA, Karlsson A, Flamholc L, Ledergerber B, Weber R, Francioli P, Cavassini M, Hirschel B, Boffi E, Furrer H, Battegay M, Elzi L, Kravchenko E, Chentsova N, Frolov V, Kutsyna G, Servitskiy S, Krasnov M, Barton S, Johnson AM, Mercey D, Phillips A, Johnson MA, Mocroft A, Murphy M, Weber J, Scullard G, Fisher M, Leen C, Gatell J, Gazzard B, Horban A, Ledergerber B, Losso M, Lundgren J, Monforte Ad, Pedersen C, Phillips A, Rakhmanova A, Reiss P, Ristola M, Rockstroh J, De Wit S, Lundgren J, Kirk O, Mocroft A, Cozzi-Lepri A, Grint D, Ellefson M, Podlekareva D, Kjaer J, Peters L, Reekie J, Kowalska J, Tverland J, Fischer AH, Nielsen J.

Author information

  • 1Copenhagen HIV Programme, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. jko@cphiv.dk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite the known substantial benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), cumulative adverse effects could still limit the overall long-term treatment benefit. Therefore we investigated changes in the rate of death with increasing exposure to cART.

METHODS:

A total of 12 069 patients were followed from baseline, which was defined as the time of starting cART or enrolment into EuroSIDA whichever occurred later, until death or 6 months after last follow-up visit. Incidence rates of death were calculated per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) and stratified by time of exposure to cART (≥3 antiretrovirals): less than 2, 2-3.99, 4-5.99, 6-7.99 and more than 8 years. Duration of cART exposure was the cumulative time actually receiving cART. Poisson regression models were fitted for each cause of death separately.

RESULTS:

A total of 1297 patients died during 70,613 PYFU [incidence rate 18.3 per 1000 PYFU, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.4-19.4], 413 due to AIDS (5.85, 95% CI 5.28-6.41) and 884 due to non-AIDS-related cause (12.5, 95% CI 11.7-13.3). After adjustment for confounding variables, including baseline CD4 cell count and HIV RNA, there was a significant decrease in the rate of all-cause and AIDS-related death between 2 and 3.99 years and longer exposure time. In the first 2 years on cART the risk of non-AIDS death was significantly lower, but no significant difference in the rate of non-AIDS-related deaths between 2 and 3.99 years and longer exposure to cART was observed.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, we found no evidence of an increased risk of both all-cause and non-AIDS-related deaths with long-term cumulative cART exposure.

PMID:
22112597
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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