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Laryngoscope. 2011 Dec;121(12):2665-71. doi: 10.1002/lary.22355.

Surgical management of distal tracheal stenosis in children.

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  • 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.



The objective of this study was to describe the long-term outcomes of tracheoplasty for distal tracheal stenosis, demonstrate the utility of cardiopulmonary bypass for intraoperative airway management, and compare perioperative morbidity and mortality of slide tracheoplasty for distal tracheal stenosis to costochondral graft, and resection with end-to-end anastomosis.


Retrospective chart review.


A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing tracheoplasty for distal obstruction and also requiring the use of cardiopulmonary bypass for intraoperative airway management from 1994 to 2009 was performed. The setting for the study was a tertiary care children's hospital.


A total of 11 patients, aged 1 month to 12 years, were identified. Four patients underwent slide tracheoplasty, two had end-to-end anastomosis, and five had costochondral graft. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time was 120 minutes, 60 minutes, and 63 minutes, respectively. The only complication of cardiopulmonary bypass was a superficial wound infection. There was one late death due to airway obstruction after repair of severe cardiac anomalies. The numbers of bronchoscopies required for resolution of granulation tissue in the slide tracheoplasty and end-to-end anastomosis groups were less than for the cartilage graft group. Three patients in the cartilage graft group required tracheostomy, and one remained tracheostomy dependent at last follow-up. None in the slide tracheoplasty or end-to-end anastomosis groups required a tracheostomy during management.


Improvements in operative techniques and perioperative management have led to significant decreases in morbidity and mortality. At our institution, slide tracheoplasty has become the preferred technique for all except very short segment stenosis, and cardiopulmonary bypass is used in all cases involving the distal trachea.

Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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