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Eur J Neurosci. 2011 Nov;34(10):1609-19. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07875.x.

The axon initial segment in nervous system disease and injury.

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  • 1Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, BCM295, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


The axon initial segment (AIS), with its dense clusters of voltage-gated ion channels decorating the axonal membrane, regulates action potential initiation and modulation. The AIS also functions as a barrier to maintain axodendritic polarity, and its precise axonal location contributes to the fine-tuning of neuronal excitability. Therefore, it is not surprising that mutations in AIS-related genes, disruption of the molecular organization of the AIS and altered AIS ion channel expression, function, location and/or density are emerging as key players in neurological disorders. Here, we consider the role of the AIS in nervous system disease and injury.

© 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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