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J Exp Child Psychol. 2012 Mar;111(3):379-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.09.004. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Children's understanding of nonverbal expressions of pride.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.


To chart the developmental path of children's attribution of pride to others, we presented children (4 years 0 month to 11 years 11 months of age, N=108) with video clips of head-and-face, body posture, and multi-cue (both head-and-face and body posture simultaneously) expressions that adults consider to convey pride. Across age groups, 4- and 5-year-olds did not attribute pride to any expression presented, 6- and 7-year-olds attributed pride only to the multi-cue expression, and 8- to 11-year-olds attributed pride to both the head-and-face and multi-cue expressions. Children of all ages viewed the postural expression as anger rather than pride. Developmentally, pride is first attributed only when several cues are present and only later when a single cue (head-and-face) is present.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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