Illustration of model sensitivities to the tuning parameters that represent the boundary-layer scaling for mass diffusion inside the bubble *A*_{m} and the critical molar fraction of vapor below which vapor trapping occurs *f*_{m}. The energy retained after the collapse of a lithotripsy bubble is plotted for various combinations of tuning parameters and water conditions. For each labeled value of *f*_{m}, a value of *A*_{m} is implied in order to predict bubble rebounds that retain 2.6% of their initial energy under water conditions at 20 °C and 10% dissolved oxygen. The corresponding model conditions are *f*_{m}=0.997 and *A*_{m}=1.69; *f*_{m}=0.998 and *A*_{m}=0.8; *f*_{m}=0.999 and *A*_{m}=0.524. Open circles and associated vertical bars represent the mean ±1 standard deviation of experimental observations at each water condition.19 (a) Model sensitivity is plotted relative to reported observations at 20 °C and three separate dissolved oxygen concentrations. Experimental data at 10%, 50%, and 85% concentrations include 12, 13, and 6 independent bubble collapses, respectively. (b) Model sensitivity is plotted relative to data at 50% dissolved oxygen and three temperatures. Experimental data at 20, 40, and 60 °C include 13, 20, and 43 independent collapses, respectively.

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