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Bioessays. 2012 Feb;34(2):135-41. doi: 10.1002/bies.201100121. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

Shadow enhancers: frequently asked questions about distributed cis-regulatory information and enhancer redundancy.

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  • 1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. sbarolo@umich.edu


This paper, in the form of a frequently asked questions page (FAQ), addresses outstanding questions about "shadow enhancers", quasi-redundant cis-regulatory elements, and their proposed roles in transcriptional control. Questions include: What exactly are shadow enhancers? How many genes have shadow/redundant/distributed enhancers? How redundant are these elements? What is the function of distributed enhancers? How modular are enhancers? Is it useful to study a single enhancer in isolation? In addition, a revised definition of "shadow enhancers" is proposed, and possible mechanisms of shadow enhancer function and evolution are discussed.

Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

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