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Toxins (Basel). 2011 Jun;3(6):626-39. doi: 10.3390/toxins3060626. Epub 2011 Jun 14.

Shiga toxin interaction with human intestinal epithelium.

Author information

  • 1Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. stephanie.schuller@bbsrc.ac.uk

Abstract

After ingestion via contaminated food or water, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli colonises the intestinal mucosa and produces Shiga toxins (Stx). No Stx-specific secretion system has been described so far, and it is assumed that Stx are released into the gut lumen after bacterial lysis. Human intestinal epithelium does not express the Stx receptor Gb3 or other Stx binding sites, and it remains unknown how Stx cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and gain access to the systemic circulation. This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of the intestinal environment on Stx production and release, Stx interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and intracellular uptake, and toxin translocation into underlying tissues. Furthermore, it highlights gaps in understanding that need to be addressed by future research.

KEYWORDS:

Shiga toxin; human intestinal epithelium; intracellular transport; regulation; translocation

PMID:
22069729
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3202847
Free PMC Article
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