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Toxins (Basel). 2009 Dec;1(2):151-61. doi: 10.3390/toxins1020151. Epub 2009 Dec 3.

Comparison of sea snake (Hydrophiidae) neurotoxin to cobra (Naja) neurotoxin.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan.


Both sea snakes and cobras have venoms containing postsynaptic neurotoxins. Comparison of the primary structures indicates many similarities, especially the positions of the four disulfide bonds. However, detailed examination reveals differences in several amino acid residues. Amino acid sequences of sea snake neurotoxins were determined, and then compared to cobra neurotoxins by computer modeling. This allowed for easy comparison of the similarities and differences between the two types of postsynaptic neurotoxins. Comparison of computer models for the toxins of sea snakes and cobra will reveal the three dimensional difference of the toxins much clearer than the amino acid sequence alone.


Hydrophiinae toxin; Praescutata viperina toxin; amino acid sequence; computer modeling; sea snake toxin

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