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Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2011 Nov;9(11):1431-43. doi: 10.1586/erc.11.137.

Advances in 3D echocardiography for mitral valve.

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  • 1Echocardiographic Laboratories and Cardiovascular and Thoracic Institute, Division of Cardiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.


The advent of real-time (RT) 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in 2007 has enhanced our understanding of the location and extent of the pathology of the native, as well as prosthetic, mitral valve (MV), particularly for MV prolapse and the anatomy of perivalvular dehiscence with prosthetic MV. MV quantification programs provide precise assessment of many quantitative MV parameters allowing 3D echocardiography to determine and quantify the geometry of mitral apparatus, including mitral annulus and periannular region, leaflet volume and anatomy, tethering distances, and tenting volumes. The detailed, accurate and optimal RT spatial visualization of the MV with 3D TEE gives greater confidence to the echocardiographer, interventionalist and the surgeon alike, facilitating medical and surgical treatment decisions. This article highlights recent advances in RT 3D TEE and transthoracic echocardiography echocardiographic imaging of the MV.

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