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Nurs Clin North Am. 2011 Dec;46(4):391-411, v. doi: 10.1016/j.cnur.2011.08.008. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

Abuse across the lifespan: prevalence, risk, and protective factors.

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  • 1Texas Woman's University, College of Nursing, 6700 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


The results of abuse may include repeated abuse, chronic pain, and physical and emotional illnesses. For some, the result is death, but others thrive. Males and females are abused at similar rates, but males are more likely to experience physical assault and females are more likely to experience sexual assault. Males and females experience psychological abuse at the same rates and there is evidence that the effects of psychological abuse are as detrimental to long-term functioning as the effects of physical abuse. This article discusses partner violence in adults and adolescents, child maltreatment, and peer abuse in children and adolescents.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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