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BMC Bioinformatics. 2011 Oct 27;12:420. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-420.

BioNØT: a searchable database of biomedical negated sentences.

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  • 1Medical Informatics, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 N, Cramer St, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0784, USA.



Negated biomedical events are often ignored by text-mining applications; however, such events carry scientific significance. We report on the development of BioNØT, a database of negated sentences that can be used to extract such negated events.


Currently BioNØT incorporates ≈32 million negated sentences, extracted from over 336 million biomedical sentences from three resources: ≈2 million full-text biomedical articles in Elsevier and the PubMed Central, as well as ≈20 million abstracts in PubMed. We evaluated BioNØT on three important genetic disorders: autism, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and found that BioNØT is able to capture negated events that may be ignored by experts.


The BioNØT database can be a useful resource for biomedical researchers. BioNØT is freely available at In future work, we will develop semantic web related technologies to enrich BioNØT.

© 2011 Agarwal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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