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J Virol. 2012 Jan;86(1):19-24. doi: 10.1128/JVI.06168-11. Epub 2011 Oct 26.

The TLR4-TRIF pathway protects against H5N1 influenza virus infection.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.


Prestimulation of the TLR4 pathway with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protects mice from lethal infection with H5N1 influenza virus. Here, we reveal that the TLR4-TRIF pathway is required for this protective effect by using mice whose TLR4-related molecules were knocked out. Microarray analysis of primary mouse lung culture cells that were LPS pretreated and infected with an H5N1 virus indicated that TLR3 mRNA was upregulated. Primary lung culture cells of TLR3 knockout mice showed no response to LPS pretreatment against H5N1 virus infection, suggesting that TLR3 is also involved in the preventive effect of LPS. Our data suggest that the TLR4-TRIF axis has an important role in stimulating protective innate immunity against H5N1 influenza A virus infection and that TLR3 signaling is involved in this pathway.

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